Sanctuary is located in Satara District in Western Maharashtra . Koyana wildlife sanctuary includes Eastern and Western catchments of Koyana dam. This dam is a major hydroelectric project centre in the Western Maharashtra. The sanctuary is well protected by the large extent of Shivasagar reservoir and steep Slopes of Western Ghats on both the sides. A vegetal cover corridor of Chandoli connects this protected area. It is bounded by Radhanagari wildlife sanctuary in south.
The land vegetation is southern tropical evergreen forests and southern moist mixed deciduous forest. The major tree species are Anjani, Jambul, Hirda, Awala, Pisa, Ain, Kinjal, Amba, Kumbha, Bhoma, Chandala, Katak, Nana, Umbar, Jambha, Gela, Bibba etc. Karvi is found almost all over the area. Tourist can find Climbers like Shikekai, and Garambi; Medicinal plants such as Karvand, Vagati, Ranmiri, Tamalpati, Toran, Dhayati, Kadipatta, Narkya, Murudsheng, etc; bulbs of seasonal plants and quite a large number of ephemera's.
The santuary also hosts threatened and rare tree species such as Garambi and Ran-Jaiphal. Some other species, which are not found anywhere and highly threatened, are Dhup, Eupohoria Longan, and Elecoarpus Tectorium. Tree giants like Harpullia Arborea & Turpunita Malbarica, which are endemic to Western Ghats are also found in the protected area.
Animals found in this sanctuary are Tigers, Panthers, Gaurs, Sloth Bears, Sambars, Barking Deers, Mouse Deers, Dholes, Gaint Squirrels, Otters, Common Langoors, Pythons, and Cobras. Among the birds are Heart Spotted, Rufous and Brown Capped Woodpeckers, Goshawk, Long Tailed Nightjar and Fairy Bluebird. These are found very rarely in other parts of Western Ghats.